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What would you do?

Camilla was five hours into the worst day of work she had ever had. Just a few weeks ago, she had been promoted to manager of the company's sales force. Her pride and enthusiasm quickly faded as the pressures of her new position became apparent. Victor, one of her top salespeople, had left to take a job at another company. She couldn't understand it; Victor had been with the company for quite a few years. What had she done to make him leave? And then there was Ken, the head of the company's production department. Although Ken was a nice person and a good manager, Camilla was having trouble working with him. Ken was always making recommendations, from a production perspective, about how sales should conduct its business. Camilla appreciated his input, but had trouble balancing it with her own supervisors' expectations. She knew that she couldn't disappoint her supervisors just to maintain good relations with the production department. At the same time, she knew that without good relations with the production department, her team would not be able to do its job. She wanted to quit being a manager and go back to being liked by everyone else. She felt worn out by the pressure and the lack of sleep. She began to wonder if she was really cut out for this job in the first place.

What would you do?

Becoming a manager is a big transition. It carries with it new roles and responsibilities—and seeing your organization with new perspectives. Many new managers go through a period of uncertainty in regards to their new responsibilities. But with time and practice, they gain the skills and confidence they need to excel in their new roles. In this topic, you'll learn how to transition from an individual contributor to a new manager, manage the dynamics behind power and influence, and build effective, well-functioning teams.

Making the transition from team member to manager is tough. How can you prepare for the responsibilities and stresses of your new role?

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Topic Objectives

This topic helps you:

  • Learn what to expect during your transition from individual contributor to new manager
  • Understand the crucial differences between being an individual contributor and leading a team or department
  • Manage the dynamics behind power and influence
  • Learn how to adjust your managerial style to meet your team's or department's performance needs
  • Build effective, well-functioning teams
  • Cope with the stresses and emotions of becoming a manager

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About the Mentor

Linda A. Hill
Linda A. Hill

From her more than 20 years of extensive field work, Professor Linda A. Hill has helped managers create the conditions for effective management in today's flatter and increasingly diverse organizations. She is a professor and Chair of the Leadership Initiative at Harvard Business School. She is also the author of the best-selling Becoming a Manager (Harvard Business School Press) and the content expert for Coaching for Results and Managing Direct Reports, award-winning interactive programs from Harvard Business School Publishing.

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Myths About Managers

Moving up

Congratulations—you're becoming a manager! You've worked hard, and now you're preparing to take a big step into a whole new role. Perhaps you're entering the realm of management from any of these directions:

  • You've scored impressive achievements as an individual contributor—for example, as a top salesperson for your company.
  • Your supervisor has promoted you to a team-leadership position—for instance, head of your regional sales force.
  • You've built a successful one-person business of your own. To sustain that success, you now need to hire and manage staff for the first time; for example, an administrative assistant, a bookkeeper, or salespeople.

Wherever you're coming from, you can boost your chances of continued success in your new role by understanding what managers really do. To begin, consider a number of all-too-common myths about management—and replace them with their corresponding truths.

Myth: You'll use the same skills

quote beginI didn't have the slightest idea what my job
was.quote end
—A new manager

Many new managers believe they'll be using the same skills they used as individual contributors—except that they'll need to apply those skills to more challenging projects.

Reality: The skills that lead to success as an individual contributor differ markedly from those needed to manage.

For example, suppose you're being promoted from salesperson to regional sales manager. As a salesperson, you probably possessed a number of essential, specific skills, including:

  • Understanding the features and benefits of the product you were selling
  • Knowing how to identify and fulfill customers' needs through your company's offerings
  • Making sales calls on your own

As a regional sales manager, you still need to use the skills you honed as an individual salesperson, but now you also need to work through others to achieve your objectives. New managerial skills will be more people-oriented than before as you:

  • Travel with your salespeople to observe their selling styles
  • Coach newly hired members of your sales team
  • Assess the performance of each salesperson
  • Motivate them to achieve the company's regional sales objectives

The skills you bring to your new position will remain valuable throughout your career. However, as a manager, your success will also depend on a different set of skills—particularly people skills.

Myth: All you need is power

quote beginThe manager is the person in power, the authority, the expert.quote end
—A new manager

Do you imagine that, as a manager, you'll have more power than you had as an individual contributor? It's easy to reach this conclusion. After all, many managers have:

  • More formal authority, in the form of control over budgets, staffing, and other aspects of their group
  • Higher status within the organization
  • More access to important organizational resources, such as their own supervisors' advice and support, the attention of top-level executives, training and development opportunities, and so forth

Reality: Managers do have power, but power does not guarantee that a manager has influence. As a manager, you have to use the tools of power—authority, status, and access—to influence others.

So, what exactly is the difference between power and influence? The following definitions help clarify the distinction:

  • Power: An individual's or group's potential to influence another individual or group.
  • Influence: The exercising of power to change an individual's or group's behavior, attitudes, and values.

As a manager, the amount of power and influence you accumulate stems from two sources:

  1. Your position in the organization. Your position in your organization's hierarchy affects your ability to influence others.
  2. For example, if you have a central or highly visible position in your organization, then you have more power than if your position is marginal. A marketing manager overseeing the marketing plan for the company's most profitable product would likely have more positional power than a salesperson in the field.

  3. Your personal characteristics. You gain power from your expertise, understanding, effort, reliability, and charisma. If people perceive that you are knowledgeable, hard-working, and trustworthy, they are more likely to follow your lead or to be influenced by you.
  4. For example, if your team members know that you keep track of how they are doing on a project and you get the help and resources they need to do their job, they are likely to work hard for the best end results.

In developing positional power, remember the Manager's Law of Reciprocity:

To influence others to help you get things done, you provide them with valued resources and services in exchange for resources and services you need.

There are many kinds of valued resources and services to offer: for example, sharing knowledge and information, offering aid or advice, acknowledging and accepting other people's contributions.

Though much of your managerial power may derive from the daily activities you perform and your location within the organization, it's your personal attributes that most determine how well you capitalize on your position.

How do you leverage your personal attributes? You cultivate networks of mutually beneficial relationships with people whose cooperation you need to succeed. To develop such networks, you need to keep a basic law of human nature in mind: What goes around comes around.

Myth: You'll have a lot of freedom

Many new managers believe they'll have far more freedom to make decisions and take action than they had as individual contributors. Some may also assume that they'll have more free time than before, because they'll have direct reports to handle a lot of the work that needs doing.

Reality: Managers have far less freedom (and free time!) to act alone than they might have anticipated. That's because:

  • Managers need the cooperation of other people to get things done:
    • Peers, supervisors, direct reports, and others within the organization
    • Customers, suppliers, competitors, and others outside the organization
  • Thus, managers depend on a network of other people to accomplish their goals, a network they have to spend time developing and maintaining.

  • Managers assume a whole new set of duties, obligations, and relationships.
  • For example, if you are a new manager of customer service, you'll have to make sure that your group's efforts coincide with the organization's overall marketing and strategic plan. If customer service is a top priority, then your managerial role becomes critical for the success of the company.

Myth: You'll always feel in control

quote beginI felt like a puppet in a puppet show.quote end
—A new manager

Many managers may seem to have mastered their positions, and their outward appearance can be convincing—even intimidating—to their direct reports or peers.

Reality: All managers are human. Even the most self-assured have their moments of frustrations and feelings of uncertainty.

As a new manager, you need to recognize that moments of frustration are normal. Occasionally, you will certainly feel:

  • Constrained
  • Uncertain about your ability to handle the job
  • Stressed about leading others
  • Frustrated when direct reports don't take your direction or listen to you
  • Annoyed or discouraged by all the "politicking" you need to do to build influence and get work done

Remember: despite the down times, managers often—though not always—feel excited, competent, and fulfilled in their jobs.

Myth: You'll learn primarily through training

quote beginHow'd I learn this job? Mostly through... trial and error, gut feel, and mistakes... I also read a lot about management and sales.quote end
—a new manager

To increase your chances of succeeding in your new managerial role, you can prepare by taking advantage of any available management-training opportunities. Combined with talking with seasoned managers and starting out with realistic expectations, training can be a valuable tool.

Reality: You can learn only so much through training. Your best teacher will be the on-the-job experience you accumulate as you begin actually serving in your new role. By taking on the right new experiences and learning from them, you can use your own insights to improve your performance and build your confidence.

To learn from your on-the-job experiences, you need three tools:

  1. A structured method for reflecting on your on-the-job experiences—analyzing what went right, what went wrong, and what you can do differently the next time you face a similar challenge.
  2. A system for gathering feedback about your performance. By gathering feedback from peers, supervisors, direct reports, and other people on how you handled various challenges, you can better see the connections between your actions and their outcomes. You can then hone your behaviors to achieve more of the results you want.
  3. A method for identifying the key issues in various situations you'll face as a manager. By identifying key issues, you can figure out which lessons a new experience has to offer. For example, suppose you realize that your group must replace its customer-database system to help the company remain competitive. This kind of change initiative may entail the key issue of overcoming employee resistance to learning a new system. If you anticipate this challenge ahead of time, you can watch for opportunities to learn how to address your employees' resistance as you begin implementing the change effort.

Transitioning into a managerial role takes preparation, patience, and perspective, but, remember, it can be an exciting journey.

Personal Insights
Becoming a manager

Myths About Managers

Myth: You'll learn primarily through training

Becoming a manager

Personal Insight

Early in my career I worked for a great company, Procter & Gamble. I was with them for several years and my earliest assignment was a very, very entry-level position where I was calling on grocery stores and selling them products both in distribution and for merchandising purposes. Once you've served your tenure in that particular job, your hope would be to develop into a management position and I was very fortunate that after a relatively short period of time I had proven what I needed to prove and was invited to become a manager. This was only a year and a half after I was out of school, and very young. The realization hit me that I was going to wake up the next morning and I was actually going to have people who were reporting to me: I was truly the leader of a small organization. I called my father to both share with him the good news, but he is also my most wise counsel and a source of tremendous advice. I must admit I had a little bit of trepidation because my father never attended university; he was never a manager of a business. His career pursuits were very different to that—he was more of a skilled tradesperson. So, I called my father and said: "Dad, I got this great promotion. Starting tomorrow I'm going to be a manager. Do you have any advice for me? This is new territory for your young son." He said: "Dave, I only have one piece of advice for you that hopefully will be useful. I think what you should do is find out how people want to be treated and treat them that way—and if you do that as a leader I think you'll be very successful. And that was the best advice I have ever gotten."

Find out how people want to be treated and treat them that way. If you do, you will be very successful.

David Brandon

Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Domino's Pizza

David Brandon is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Domino's Pizza.

Mr. Brandon started his career at Procter & Gamble, where he worked in sales management.

In 1979, following his tenure at Procter & Gamble, Mr. Brandon moved to Valassis Inc., a company in the sales promotion and coupon industries. He became President and Chief Executive Officer in 1989, a position he held until 1998, while additionally taking on the role of Chairman in the last two years.

Mr. Brandon subsequently moved to Domino's Pizza, and has been the company's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since March 1999.

In addition to this leadership role, Mr. Brandon is on the Boards of Burger King Corporation, The TJX Companies, Inc. and Kaydon Corporation.

A former University of Michigan football player, Mr. Brandon is also on the University's Board of Regents.

Roles and Expectations

New managers' expectations

Camilla stands in her new office and faces a major part of her new role – relationship-building.

When you become a manager, you enter the role with your own expectations of what your new job will involve. Often, those expectations differ from your job's real requirements.

First-time leaders tend to focus on management's rights and privileges, not its duties. They expect to keep managing tasks as they did before, not necessarily people—only with more power, control, and accountability than they had as individual contributors. They see their primary responsibilities as:

  • Making task-related or operational decisions
  • Hiring and firing direct reports
  • Providing opportunities and innovative ideas
  • Planning

What new managers often misunderstand is that, to accomplish these goals, they now will depend on other people. Network- and relationship-building—the "people challenges" (such as conflict resolution and politicking)—will actually constitute a major part of their job.

And because many new managers anticipate focusing on tasks rather than orchestrating the performance of their group, they often cling to the "doer" role that they played so well as individual contributors.

Direct reports' expectations

quote beginI'm paid for making my quota, but my job is to support my people...What do you make of that?quote end
—A new manager

Direct reports see their manager's role in very different terms. In their view, a manager's job is to:

  • Organize and direct the group's strategic goals
  • Support direct reports as they accomplish tasks, including offering guidance, resources, and a sympathetic ear
  • Create the conditions that will help direct reports succeed—by providing leadership, keeping things running smoothly, anticipating long-term changes in the business environment, and building effective networks
  • Solve problems and answer questions decisively
  • Represent your group to others both inside and outside the organization

Overall, direct reports have a relatively clear view of a manager's purpose: to get things done through others.

At the same time, their viewpoint tends to be strongly influenced by their own interests: They expect their manager to serve their own needs and worries—first and foremost.

Supervisors' expectations

In many supervisors' opinions, managers' responsibilities are primarily to:

  • Accept final accountability for their unit
  • Motivate direct reports to support corporate goals
  • Make trade-offs and manage risks
  • Formulate and follow well-thought-out plans
  • Balance their group's interests with those of others
  • Protect the reputations of their superiors and the company

In sum, supervisors tend to hold the most comprehensive and accurate view of what being a manager really entails. They emphasize managerial duties over rights and privileges, and people management over task management.

Peers' expectations

Managers in other functional areas expect a new manager to:

  • Represent his or her group or department
  • Span boundaries between groups by sharing needed information and resources
  • Set agendas and build networks
  • Treat peers as partners
  • Do what's best for the company

Many new managers start off paying little attention to their peers' needs and expectations—usually because they feel overwhelmed by their new duties. However, they soon learn that their colleagues expect them to cultivate peer relationships as well as relationships with direct reports and supervisors.

Manage conflicting expectations

Juggling the expectations of your supervisors, direct reports, and peers is a major challenge. How do you decide which expectations to favor?

Key Idea

When you become a manager, everyone you work with—from your supervisor to your peers to your direct reports—will have different expectations of you. Often, their expectations will conflict. How can you reconcile these conflicting expectations? Hard-earned experience helps. Over time, you'll likely adopt more realistic expectations as you:

  • Encounter the real limits to your power and control.
  • Interact with superiors, direct reports, and peers—including receiving requests, complaints, and feedback from all three groups.
  • Grapple with inevitable conflicts and dilemmas.
  • Clear the air of misunderstandings by communicating with those involved.

Because direct reports have the closest physical presence, managers tend to reconcile expectations with them first. Next, because of the power relationship, new managers usually resolve conflicting views with their supervisors. Finally, new managers pay attention to their peers. However, all three groups are important and need a new manager's attention to start building productive relationships.

Roles and Expectations

Manage conflicting expectations

Activity: Reconcile conflicting views

You are manager of your company's sales department. Last quarter, your department fell just short of its assigned quota.

Review the differing perspectives of your supervisor and direct report.

Your supervisor says:

"You need to motivate your people to get out there and make sales. Apparently, commissions and other incentives aren't doing the job. You should let them know that the lowest performers in the next quarter may not have a job here much longer."

Your direct report says:

"We'd be able to close more sales if we knew more about what we're actually selling, but we're getting no support from the production department. They need to be available to answer our questions about new products. Otherwise, we're just flying blind out there."

What action should you take?




Sales have picked up significantly this quarter. In fact, they've picked up so significantly that the production department is becoming seriously overworked.

Review the differing perspectives of your supervisor and the implementation manager.

Your supervisor says:

"Great work this quarter! We need you to keep it up. Things have been tough for the company this year, but if sales stay at this level we won't have to do any downsizing like we feared."

The implemention manager, your peer, says:

"Some of my people are working sixty-hour weeks. You've got to pull back on sales. We just can't keep this up for much longer."

What action should you take?




Your sales team has been using the same customer-tracking software for almost seven years. It offers much less functionality than some of the newer software on the market.

Your direct report says:

"This software was fine five years ago, but now it's holding us back from our full potential. Upgrading to SalesBuddy 3000 will help us track customer information much more effectively, so that we can close more sales in less time."

The IT Manager, your peer, says:

"Look, upgrading to SalesBuddy 3000 won't be a simple task. It'll require upgrading every computer in the sales department as well as making serious overhauls to the network infrastructure. My people just don't have the time or resources for this right now."

Review the differing perspectives of your direct report and the IT manager.

What action should you take?




Many problems require you to balance the expectations of your direct reports, peers, and supervisors. See if you can strike a balance in the following situations.

Setting Agendas and Building Networks

Be an agenda setter

quote beginIt's like I'm running my own business.quote end
—A new manager

Setting an agenda for your group involves articulating strategies that will help your group support the company's objectives—and then ensuring that those strategies are implemented.

To think like an agenda setter, you need to:

  • View yourself as an entrepreneur running his or her own business—and must therefore attend to all the forces that may make or break that business.
  • Broaden your perspective to include not just your group, but also the larger organization, as well as the industry and business environment in which your company operates.
  • Develop and maintain a budget to support your agenda.
  • Adopt a long-term orientation; think about various future scenarios and decide how your group should respond.
  • Balance any tensions between your team or department and other groups of the larger organization, including clarifying priorities and making mutually acceptable compromises.
  • Accept that the priorities you identify may not necessarily be shared by your direct reports unless you communicate your vision to them.

Note: New managers find themselves having to cope with financial resources and constraints in new ways.

These multiple perspectives reveal that agenda setting is a complex process of thought and decision making that takes into account multiple factors beyond your particular group.

Be a network builder

Building networks involves strengthening and sustaining mutually beneficial relationships with everyone you interact with—superiors, peers, and direct reports, as well as customers, suppliers, and people from partnering companies.

To think like a network builder, you need to:

  • View yourself as a "people developer," not a "task doer."
  • See the value in organizational politics as sharing and forming alliances.
  • Understand where you fit in the organization and how to use your position and personal qualities to achieve your goals and obtain needed resources—as well as help others do the same.
  • Grasp the importance of developing relationships with people outside as well as inside your group.
  • Be open to creating opportunities to spend time with bosses and peers—such as informal chats, lunches, meetings, and social interactions.
  • Be willing to participate actively in your organization and the larger community to build up the reputation of your group and company.

Building networks—connections with other people—is easier for some than for others. But remember that practice makes this process familiar, and it's the only way to deal productively with the political realities of the business world.

Taking a Broader View

Frame problems from the organization's perspective

Solving problems in your own department is a top priority. But how do you keep the big picture in mind as you tackle these problems?

Key Idea

When you make the transition from individual contributor to manager, you not only revise your expectations and see yourself in a different light, you also begin viewing and handling problems and measuring success in whole new ways.

The problems you encountered as an individual contributor likely related directly to your particular job. However, your identity as a manager includes becoming a role model for your direct reports (and peers), looking at the world through the lens of your organization's overall objectives, and being held accountable for your decisions.

As a manager:

  • Remember that most problems you'll be facing have more than one solution. Try to envision or solicit as many as possible.
  • Define problems in broader, more holistic ways; in other words, view them as relevant to your entire group and organization, not just your own job.
  • Consider the value of efficiency over effectiveness in your decisions.

Measure your success by your group's

As a team member, you can measure yourself by your individual contributions. But a manager is only as successful as the team he or she leads.

Key Idea

As an individual contributor, you likely defined success in terms of your own performance—how many new customers you acquired, how well a new product you designed worked, and so forth. As a manager, however—someone whose primary responsibility is to get things done through others—you need to measure success differently.

Specifically, your success will be defined by:

  • How well your group achieves its objectives
  • How much you've helped your direct reports hone their skills and manage tasks effectively
  • How strongly your group's achievements have supported the company's objectives and strategies

In other words, you succeed only when your group succeeds.

Derive satisfaction in new ways

Just as success needs to be measured in new ways for a manager, satisfaction can take a different form.

In the past, you may have been pleased with your own individual accomplishments, but now you need to find satisfaction from different sources. For one thing, you may be many steps removed from the outcome of your decisions and actions. As a result, your relationship to the outcome may be distant, ambiguous, or even unrecognized. You will rarely get the same instant gratification you got in the past with a successful outcome that was clearly your doing.

How can you still feel gratification under these changed conditions? Many managers learn to enjoy:

  • Seeing and helping other people succeed
  • Discovering that they can be effective coaches who bring out the best in others
  • Seeing themselves gradually adapt to their new identity and master their new responsibilities—thereby getting more of the results they want

In addition to these, you may find other sources of satisfaction. Becoming comfortable with your new managerial identity involves some profound shifts in your beliefs, attitudes, and sometimes even values. Many new managers discover—to their pleasant surprise—that aspects of the job they worried about or dreaded are actually personally fulfilling.

Managing Teams

What is a team?

Camilla and her team gather around the conference table to discuss their common purpose and shared goals.

A team is more than just a group of individuals who work together. Rather, it's a small number of individuals with complementary skills committed to:

  • A common purpose
  • Shared performance goals
  • An approach to their mission for which they hold themselves collectively accountable

Why create teams?

Not all groups or departments constitute a team. Nor do some businesses need the team concept—individuals working on their own, such as brokers in an investment company, may best satisfy the group's overall needs.

For many business tasks or projects, however, a functional, cohesive team can produce results that no one individual could ever manage.

Teams are especially valuable when the work of your group or department:

  • Requires a combination of knowledge, expertise, and perspective that can't be found in a single individual
  • Requires a large degree of interdependence among group members
  • Faces a major challenge, such as reversing falling profitability (in these cases, your group's ability to surmount the challenge will hinge on its success in building a shared performance ethic)

How are teams beneficial?

Camilla encourages her team to work together on a challenge; each team member contributes a piece to the creative solution.

When teams work well, the results can prove very productive. They may include:

  • Increased performance and creativity with the talents of all the team members focusing on a problem or task
  • Effective use of delegation and flexibility in task assignments
  • Improved communication
  • Increased cross-training and development
  • Effective implementation when everyone on the team shares commitment and responsibility

Many of these advantages flow from the synergy of team members' skills and experiences. In addition, teams tend to establish new communication processes that encourage ongoing problem-solving. Finally, many people enjoy, and are motivated by, working in teams. As a result, they deliver their best performance in a team setting.

How to manage a team

quote beginI had to prove that I deserved my team's respect and trust.quote end
—A new manager

Adapting your managerial style to fit a team situation doesn't have to mean "tacking on" a whole new approach that will feel unnatural, artificial, or phony to you. Rather, it's more like fine-tuning behaviors you're already doing, and weaving in some new behaviors that will help you better lead your team.

Consider the four "team-leadership continua" along which managers can move as necessary:

Each of the above continua illustrates a pair of conflicting forces, or tensions, that lie at the heart of team life. And, for each criterion, sometimes it's appropriate to gravitate toward one or the other polar end. Other times, it's appropriate to settle somewhere in the middle. It all depends on the needs of your team.

Activity
Find the right balance
Personal Insights
Supporting your team

Managing Teams

How to manage a team

Supporting your team

Personal Insight

A leader in any organization, particularly a large one, is only going to be as successful as their team wants them to be If my team here at Domino's woke up one morning and said: "You know what, we've really decided that Dave doesn't deserve to be successful and we're going to start doing things that are going to undermine his ability to be successful," I would fail. There's no leader in the world that's powerful enough to overcome a team that doesn't really believe in them and want them to be successful. So, my lesson in life and in business has been to create a circumstance where the people that I call upon to do work on my behalf and create results on my behalf, respect me. I need them to trust me. To earn that respect and trust, I need them to know that I'm going to treat them in a manner that's very consistent with the way they want to be treated.

Leaders are only as powerful as their teams. No leader is powerful enough to overcome a team that doesn't really believe in and want that leader to be successful.

David Brandon

Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Domino's Pizza

David Brandon is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Domino's Pizza.

Mr. Brandon started his career at Procter & Gamble, where he worked in sales management.

In 1979, following his tenure at Procter & Gamble, Mr. Brandon moved to Valassis Inc., a company in the sales promotion and coupon industries. He became President and Chief Executive Officer in 1989, a position he held until 1998, while additionally taking on the role of Chairman in the last two years.

Mr. Brandon subsequently moved to Domino's Pizza, and has been the company's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since March 1999.

In addition to this leadership role, Mr. Brandon is on the Boards of Burger King Corporation, The TJX Companies, Inc. and Kaydon Corporation.

A former University of Michigan football player, Mr. Brandon is also on the University's Board of Regents.

Managing Teams

How to manage a team

Activity: Find the right balance

Team members avoid healthy, productive confrontation and suppress their thoughts and feelings in order to preserve harmony.

Identify which extreme in management style has created the observed team behavior.




Team members become less enterprising and less willing to make decisions on their own.

Identify which extreme in management style has created the observed team behavior.




Team members become overly critical of each other's performance and engage in disruptive arguments.

Identify which extreme in management style has created the observed team behavior.




Your team members complain that the group lacks direction and their efforts become uncoordinated.

Identify which extreme in management style has created the observed team behavior.




Your team members don't have the opportunity to develop their own decision-making and critical-thinking skills.

Identify which extreme in management style has created the observed team behavior.




Your team doesn't consider the learning capacities it needs to tackle new challenges and innovate in the long term.

Identify which extreme in management style has created the observed team behavior.




See how well you understand the effects different management styles can have on a team.

Managing Individuals

Managerial styles

Just as it's important to adjust your team-management style, you need to adapt the way you lead different individuals within your group. That is, you need to provide different kinds of leadership for each individual, depending on, for example, his or her level of professional development or commitment to the job. The table below provides some examples.

Adapting Your Managerial Style

DEVELOPMENTAL/
COMMITMENT LEVEL

EXAMPLE

APPROPRIATE MANAGERIAL STYLE

Beginner

A team member is just starting out in his or her career, or is taking on a new position or task.

Directive

You monitor the person more closely and provide more explicit instructions and demands.

Disillusioned

A team member feels bitter or resentful about problems in the team.

Coaching

You identify the person's concerns and work together with him or her to move past them.

Reluctant

A team member lacks confidence to fully engage in the work at hand.

Supportive

You encourage the person to identify his or her strengths and build on them, and to gradually take more risks.

Peak Performance

A team member is at the top of his or her "game."

Delegating

You give the person significant latitude and entrust him or her with key task responsibilities and decision making.

For example, if you are a regional sales manager with a team of salespeople, you need to assess what each team member needs from you—and those needs will be very different!

  • A new hire will take more of your time, requiring careful instructions and guidance. You will need to observe him often as he tackles the new skills, giving him suggestions, feedback, and guidance. If, however, you let this person go on his own, he will likely make many mistakes, feel abandoned and discouraged.
  • On the other hand, the top salesperson who has been on the job for fifteen years needs little guidance. Just give this person all the room she needs to carry on and do the best job possible. You might even ask her to be a mentor for the new hire. If you misjudge what she needs and manage her too closely as though she were a new hire, she will become frustrated, even angry about your lack of trust in her.

Individuals experience degrees of professional development and commitment. Therefore, you apply degrees of direction, coaching, support, and delegation as appropriate.

When you adapt your management style to fit the situation or individual needs, people will trust you and accept your versatility of styles.

Managing Individuals

Managerial styles

Adapt your leadership style

Personal Insight

One of the things buried in the point that my father made to me was the realization that all people are different and they respond differently to different types of coaching methods. I think in American business we often try to come up with the one-size fits all solution to everything, and the bigger the organization, the more inclined you are to issue some policy edict, procedure or process that forces everybody to be put through the same channel in the way things are handled. I understand that. We certainly do that to the extent that it is necessary, but what my father taught me—and what I've learned—is that it's also very important to understand that people are individuals, and individuals react differently to different situations.

The best thing I can do to motivate some people who work for me is just to tell them how proud I am of them, how high my expectations are and pat them on the head. They'll go out and perform at a higher level than you could ever imagine because, truthfully, they're going to put more pressure on themselves than I could ever put on them. There are other people who work for me who, from time to time, need a little bit more encouragement. They need my direction. They need me to supply them with some reasons why they need to step it up and run a little harder and try a little more to achieve things. I think the mark of a good leader is someone who has the ability to assess the personality of an individual: what their wants, needs and unique desires are and adapt your leadership style in such a way that you appeal to those strengths and individual characteristics of that particular employee. It's the way to get the most out of them and it's a way for them to be the most comfortable.

Another point that is related to this is the development of trust. If you don't develop trust among the people that you work with, all is lost. So, how do you get trust? I think one of the most important things about trust is to have a relationship that's based on both respect and, truthfully, a desire to work with one another and a desire to help one another be successful. I think what my dad was saying is that if I'm in a position where I can really understand how people want to be treated and treat them that way, they're going to respond with respect, they're going to trust me and they're going to like me—because who doesn't want to be treated in that manner?

Leaders should create an environment where people are respected and trusted, and the sign of a good leader is one who can adapt his leadership style to the personality of each individual.

David Brandon

Chairman & Chief Executive Officer, Domino's Pizza

David Brandon is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Domino's Pizza.

Mr. Brandon started his career at Procter & Gamble, where he worked in sales management.

In 1979, following his tenure at Procter & Gamble, Mr. Brandon moved to Valassis Inc., a company in the sales promotion and coupon industries. He became President and Chief Executive Officer in 1989, a position he held until 1998, while additionally taking on the role of Chairman in the last two years.

Mr. Brandon subsequently moved to Domino's Pizza, and has been the company's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since March 1999.

In addition to this leadership role, Mr. Brandon is on the Boards of Burger King Corporation, The TJX Companies, Inc. and Kaydon Corporation.

A former University of Michigan football player, Mr. Brandon is also on the University's Board of Regents.

Managing Individuals

Managerial styles

Activity: Adapt your managerial style

You are the manager of a small, elite team of programmers at DigaBite, a high-end consumer electronics company. DigaBite manufactures cell phones and other compact devices.

Todd is your star programmer. You frequently rely on him for his ability to solve problems quickly and effectively, and you have seen his innovative ideas turn average products into great ones. While working on a new smart phone, Todd raises the idea of collaborating with some other programmers to greatly expand the email functionality of the phone in addition to performing his regular project duties.

What is the most appropriate managerial style to use with Todd?





Mary joined your team four months ago. You think she has a lot of potential; however, she doesn't handle mistakes very well. When the QA team notifies her of bugs in her programming, she tends to be unduly hard on herself and question whether she is cut out for the job.

What is the most appropriate managerial style to use with Mary?





Gordon is the newest member of your team. He's smart and enthusiastic and possesses all of the skills that you think a good programmer requires. He performs particularly well in the early stages of a project. However, by the later stages of the project he frequently makes serious errors because he fails to follow company processes.

What is the most appropriate managerial style to use with Gordon?





When your direct reports run into problems, you need to choose the right managerial style to help them succeed.

Coaching

As a manager, you'll provide your direct reports with coaching and feedback. At times, you will do the same for your supervisor and peers as well. Thus, your role is to be a mentor on many levels.

Coaching is a partnership between two people—usually the manager and a direct report—in which both parties share knowledge and experience in order to maximize the coachee's potential and help him or her achieve agreed-upon goals. It is a shared act in which the coachee actively and willingly participates.

The table below provides more details about what coaching is and is not.

What Is Coaching?

COACHING IS . . .

COACHING IS NOT . . .

A means for learning and development

A time to only criticize

A way to guide someone toward his or her goals

A means for directing someone's actions in order to meet your own goals

The sharing of experiences and opinions to generate agreed-upon outcomes

A chance to be the expert or supervisor with "all the answers"

A means for inspiring and supporting another person

A way to address personal issues

(Adapted from Interaction Associates)

Why coach?

You and a direct report may agree to form a coaching relationship when both of you believe that working together will lead to improved performance. Through coaching, you can help direct reports to:

  • Maximize their strengths (for example, build on analytical skills)
  • Overcome personal obstacles (for instance, reduce a fear of public speaking)
  • Achieve new skills and competencies to become more effective (for example, develop more advanced communication skills)
  • Prepare themselves for new responsibilities (such as acquiring leadership skills)
  • Manage themselves (for instance, find ways to improve their use of time)
  • Clarify and work toward performance goals (for example, learn to set more realistic goals)

Other benefits of coaching include:

  • Increased job satisfaction and motivation for the coachee
  • Improved working relationship between you and direct reports
  • Productive team members
  • Effective use of organizational resources
  • Increased learning—as you coach, you will gain knowledge and experience as well

Coach or give feedback?

Because coaching is based on mutual agreement, it is appropriate only in certain circumstances. You may need to use more direct intervention by asserting your authority when:

  • A direct report has clearly violated company policy or organizational values
  • A new or inexperienced employee requires more direction on a task
  • Coaching fails to generate performance improvements

Giving and receiving feedback

In business, feedback is the sharing of observations about job performance or work-related behaviors for the purpose of reinforcing effective behaviors and changing ineffective ones. Although similar to coaching in some ways, feedback is a more direct form of intervention and can occur with or without consent of the recipient.

Feedback is helpful and constructive, not critical and judgmental. It offers advice on ways to improve, not an enumeration of faults.

Depending on your needs, you can give feedback to someone based on that person's short-term or long-term goals. You can also give feedback in different directions:

  • Upward to your boss
  • Downward to a direct report
  • Laterally to a colleague or peer

Why give feedback?

By providing effective feedback to someone else, you:

  • Redirect that person's behavior or point out a more productive path of action
  • Reinforce or encourage an effective way of working
  • Coach the person so that he or she achieves better performance

As a new manager, you may have several goals in mind regarding feedback. You may want to:

  • Give feedback to help a direct report, your boss, or a peer achieve his or her work objectives
  • Receive feedback from your direct reports, boss, or peers to improve your own performance

Regardless of who the recipient is, effective feedback can help these aspects of his or her work:

  1. Relationships—how well the person interacts with others
  2. Process—how the individual gets his or her work done
  3. Results—how the person performs on measurable, on-the-job achievements

Skillful giving and receiving of feedback can contribute to strong working relationships with your group, your boss, and your peers.

Putting It All Together

The "Triangle of Relationships"

As a manager, you have a relationship with your team as a whole and with the individual team members. How can you effectively balance these different relationships?

Adapted from: L. Hirschhorn, Managing in the New Team Environment: Skills, Tools, and Methods (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1991) pp. 14-16.

Key Idea

One way to think about the need to adapt your team-management and individual-management styles is to imagine a triangle made up of three sets of relationships:

  • Your relationship to your team as a whole
  • Your relationship to each of your team's members as individuals
  • Individual members' relationship to the team as a whole

Relationships along one "leg" of the triangle affect relationships along the other two legs. If you overemphasize one set of relationships at the expense of the other two, your team's performance can suffer.

For example:

  1. If you pay too much attention to your role as manager of the whole team, some team members may complain that you're not acknowledging their individual contributions.
  2. They then begin withholding their best thinking from the team, because they feel that their contributions won't be noticed.
  3. Over time, the team as a whole becomes passive and uninvolved.
  4. You decide that the team is "ungrateful" and withdraw your support.
  5. Tension mounts, and overall team performance declines.

Moderation often seems to be key to success. The more you can balance the three sets of relationships, the healthier, happier, and more productive your team will likely be.

Promoting Diversity and Understanding Group Culture

Forms of diversity

For many people, the word diversity has come to connote primarily racial or gender differences among employees within a company. And certainly such differences can influence the assumptions that people make about each other and the way they work together.

But diversity can mean so much more than race or gender. Your supervisors, peers, and direct reports can differ in many ways:

  • Tenure. Some individuals may be just out of college and entering the workforce for the first time; others may be quite experienced.
  • Cultural background. People may come from different regions of the country or from other countries entirely.
  • Physical ability. Some people may use various forms of assistive technologies, such as voice-activated software, to perform their work.
  • Working or learning style. Some people approach a task logically and methodically; others are more intuitive and creative.

All these differences can strongly influence people's needs, ways of communicating and interacting, and priorities.

Personal Insights
Diversity in teams

Promoting Diversity and Understanding Group Culture

Forms of diversity

Diversity in teams

Personal Insight

Robert Swan, the first person to have walked to the North and South Pole, has a fantastic story to tell about the trek that he took to the North Pole with a group of people from nations all around the world. These were very different people from diverse backgrounds, with diverse and different ways of approaching problems. They traveled most of the way towards the North Pole, but then something happened which took them all by surprise. When they were making that journey, the ice started to melt. This hadn't happened at that time of year for hundreds of years. It was quite clear to them that, unless they did something about it, both the mission and their lives would be threatened. They were in a desperate situation and had to know what to do.

Sensibly, as a team, they had taken every effort to make sure that all members of the team felt a part of it. There was one particular individual called Yoshi, a Japanese gentleman, who had very poor English. It might have been very easy for the group to have pushed him to the side, and that would have been to the loss of their team. Yoshi had been poring over what they could do to get out of the situation. The ice was melting and it was inevitable that they were going to run out of ice to walk on unless they did something. Yoshi came up with a fantastic solution. He was aware that they'd been working their hiking cycle around a 24-hour clock: they'd been assuming that they could walk for maybe 10 or 12 hours during the day, rest for a couple of hours, work a few more hours and then rest until the next day. It was bright sunlight the whole time during the year, and what occurred to Yoshi was to question why they insisted on working to a 24-hour clock? Why weren't they working, for example, to a 30 or 40-hour clock? This was a marvelous realization. He suggested to the team that they could assume there were 40 hours in a day, so they could walk for 24 or 25 hours and then break, walk a few more and then rest. This was a surprise to the team because they couldn't have imagined walking to another arrangement. But it enabled them to gain an extra two or three days on the journey and advance ahead of the snow so they got to the North Pole.

This was possible because the team valued diversity and difference; the team made sure that even those who perhaps could have easily been pushed to the side were brought in. It was at that one moment when Yoshi made his contribution and saved the lives of all those on the team. Diversity is an absolute essential; not only in conceptually recognizing it, but being able to do something practically about it to bring people into a team.

Diversity is about celebrating the different contributions people make within an organization. However, it's not just having the concept of diversity in your head; it's about how you then manage different teams and different people.

Robin Ryde

Head, Centre for Strategic Leadership, National School of Government

Robin Ryde spent three years at the Cabinet Office leading the Prime Minister's leadership development program—the Top Management Program: one of the largest leadership development programs in Europe.

He is currently is the Director of Skills & Career Development at the National Audit Office, the nation's watchdog for government spending.

In this position he is involved in leadership development, organizational change and consultancy—in particular assisting UK and international government departments and smaller bodies to lead, deliver and operate more efficiently.

He has led a variety of consultancy and 'value for money' evaluations, ranging from the performance of Grant Maintained Schools, defense equipment acquisitions and the sales of UK gold reserves, to programs tackling deprivation in Britain's poorest areas.

Robin Ryde has also designed and delivered training in the UK and across South and North America on subjects ranging from creativity to government reform, and from evaluation to accountability.

More intangible dimensions of diversity

People also differ along some more abstract (but deeply personal) dimensions. These differences can make building relationships with direct reports especially challenging. For instance, your direct reports may have markedly different:

  • Professional motivations. Some people may be aiming for a career in management themselves; others may wish to continue serving as individual contributors. And some employees may be far more or less driven than others to perform at their best.
  • Management preferences. Some people may want more direction from you than others do. And some may want more or less contact with you (in the form of regular meetings or e-mail exchanges).
  • Experience level. Your direct reports will have varying levels of experience in performing the tasks that make up their jobs. These experience levels derive from people's work histories, training, and education.
  • Personal style. Each subordinate will have his or her own way of interacting with others, working, dealing with conflict, and so forth. Unfortunately, some direct reports may prove problematic; for example, they have little motivation to work, or they have an overbearing or otherwise troublesome personality trait that alienates or distracts their fellow team members.

Taken together, all these differences create both the challenges and the richness that you can expect to encounter when you first become a manager. The deep differences between people can lead to misunderstandings or other difficulties, but they can also serve as the very sources of the special contributions that each person brings to your team.

Indeed, the more diverse your team is, the greater the variety of ideas, perspectives, solutions to problems, skills, and personal abilities your group has to offer.

Understand group culture

When you step into your new role as manager of an existing group, you may discover something surprising: The team you'll be leading has its own culture; that is, a distinct way of:

  • Solving problems and meeting challenges
  • Getting work done
  • Communicating
  • Learning
  • Dealing with conflict
  • Interacting with other groups
  • Marking successes and dealing with disappointments

That culture will have arisen in part from the group members' special and different characteristics, discussed in the previous pages. Your group's culture may also have been shaped by its former leader's personal style and expectations.

As a key step in building effective relationships with your new direct reports, do not attempt to make improvements too soon. First, spend time learning about the culture you've inherited. Only then can you determine how best to help team members succeed individually and collectively in progressing toward your strategic goals.

Avoid assumptions about a new group

New managers often make the following assumptions when faced with an inherited group:

  • All their direct reports are similar to one another in terms of their work and personal styles, cultural backgrounds, and so forth.
  • All group members have the same motivations, goals, and values that they, the managers, have.
  • Leaders must treat all their employees the same in order to treat them fairly.

Even when differences among individuals in the group become apparent, some managers assume that they can mold employees in their own image; that is, change them so that they resemble the managers themselves. But this effort commonly results in resistance and resentment from employees.

Shape a new team from a preformed group

quote beginWhat you invest today in people, you'll reap tomorrow.quote end
—A new manager

First, acknowledge that each member of your group is a unique person with individual personalities, skills, and attitudes. Then take the following action steps.

  1. Get to know who your direct reports really are.
  2. Find out by talking, asking, and observing the answers to questions such as the following:

    • How do your team members prefer to be managed?
    • What motivates them (logic? emotional appeal? exciting new ideas?)?
    • Who needs a firm hand?
    • Who needs a lot of praise?
    • How do they respond to conflict?
  3. With the knowledge gained, decide how best to treat each employee fairly to help him or her succeed.
  4. To some managers, fair treatment means identical treatment.


    Fairness really means finding the best ways to help each direct report succeed. And those ways may differ, depending on your direct reports' different situations. Thus, when you treat people differently, you're actually giving them an equal opportunity to do well.


    For example: Suppose you're about to become the manager of a product-development group. In what ways could you help each member of the group fairly?

    • One person responds to praise with renewed energy, commitment, and creativity. You make it a point to thank him in person at least once a week for whatever recent successes he has achieved.
    • Another group member is highly motivated by the idea that the products your group develops can help make consumers' lives better. In discussing new product ideas, you take time to mention to her how a particular new device might make people's lives healthier, more enjoyable or convenient, or better in some other specific, important way.
    • An individual has a tendency to suffer repetitive-motion injuries, such as carpal-tunnel syndrome, if he spends too much time working at a computer. You research and invest in a voice-activated software product that will let him excel at his job without risking injury.

Note: You may inherit your original team, but as time goes on, you'll begin to hire and shape your own team.

Building Self-Awareness

Be ready for change

Camilla undergoes changes; she starts identifying herself less by the tasks she completes and more by her management successes.

Many first-time leaders are aware that they'll need to master new management skills and competencies in order to succeed in their new role. However, they may not realize that the managerial role will change who they are as persons.

As you begin devoting yourself to your new job, you'll experience shifts along these three dimensions:

  1. Your motivations for being a manager
  2. Your assessment of your ability to do the job
  3. Your professional identity

Understand your motivations to be a manager

Many soon-to-be managers look forward to their new role because they believe it will let them:

  • Assume more authority and responsibility
  • Make more money
  • "Be the boss"; that is, exercise more power and influence
  • Improve inefficient practices and show others the right way to do things
  • Achieve new prestige and status
  • Gain recognition for contributing to their organization's success
  • Use the managerial role as a stepping stone for even higher positions in the company

Any or all of these objectives may be relevant, important, and achievable for some managers. But soon after taking on their new responsibilities, newly minted managers discover something surprising: Their job is not so much about them, their power, and their success—but about their group and its effectiveness and success.

Indeed, first-time managers are often dismayed to find that:

  • They have far less power and prestige than they expected
  • The criteria for measuring their performance are less clear than when they were individual contributors
  • Seeing their efforts bear fruit can take a long time

On the other hand, becoming an effective manager lets you:

  • Help your people to excel and fulfill their own dreams
  • See your employees gain new skills and self-confidence
  • Open new salary and career opportunities for members of your group
  • Recognize that the scale and scope of your impact on the organization can be much larger than as an individual contributor

Whatever your original motivations for wanting to become a manager, be honest with yourself and be open to change!

Assess your ability to do the job

As new leaders step into the managerial role, their questions often shift from, "Will I like being a manager?" to a more anxiety-producing question: "Will I be good at it?"

To answer this second question, first-time managers need to assess their personal impact on the organization, while realizing that:

  • In the past, managers' performance has typically been evaluated more on subjective criteria (such as their ability to motivate others) than on objective, easily measurable criteria (such as personal sales volume per quarter). This is changing, however, as companies require more objective assessment measures, even for managers. Thus, managerial assessment includes both subjective and objective measures.
  • There are no perfect solutions to the problems facing managers. Rather, leaders must find the most workable solutions—as well as make numerous trade-offs among competing interests.
  • Managers usually can't please everyone with whom they work or interact. Someone is always dissatisfied or upset, and something's always left undone.
  • Managers often don't see the results of their efforts for quite a while.
  • Managers get things done through others, not through their own direct actions.

In light of all these self-assessment challenges, how might you gauge your impact on your organization after becoming a manager?

  1. Start by assessing your influence on specific individuals, especially direct reports.
  2. For example, a sales manager coaches a sales rep on how to close deals, then watches to see whether the rep increases the number of closed deals that quarter.

  3. Next, notice how you might be affecting the corporate culture.
  4. For example, a manager who has a natural ability to use humor to inspire others begins noticing that her direct reports are now using humor to boost morale among themselves.

  5. Ask others about your impact on the organization. Gather varied impressions about your style, work, or influence from different sources—including direct reports, peers, bosses, and customers.
  6. For example, request that your supervisor conduct a three-month performance review for you.

  7. Develop your own objective criteria to evaluate your performance.
  8. For example, track the turnover rate in your group, the number and quality of customer complaints, and so forth.

  9. Look for common or contrasting patterns in the feedback you receive.
  10. For example, you may discover that direct reports as well as your supervisor see you as somewhat timid while others see you as overly aggressive.

  11. Pay attention to your own behavior, analyzing how you handle various situations.
  12. For example, observe how you greet direct reports at the beginning of the workday. Do you smile and say hello to each group member? Or do you dash into your office and start your day by checking e-mail and phone messages instead?

By collecting different kinds of information from various sources, you can assemble evidence in the same way you'd put together a jigsaw puzzle. The resulting impressions will give you as full a picture as possible of your impact on the company.

Recognize your identity shift

As first-time managers accumulate experience in their new role, they discover whole new sides of themselves. Some of these discoveries may be encouraging.

For example, a manager finds that:

  • Many of his colleagues and direct reports see him as more empathetic and supportive than he sees himself.
  • He has unexpected reserves of enthusiasm and fresh perspectives.
  • He seems especially talented at giving people constructive feedback on both their good points and their areas for improvement.

But other discoveries may be disturbing.

For instance, a manager realizes that:

  • Others see him as too aggressive, demanding, self-interested, dictatorial, harsh, indecisive, or some other undesirable quality.
  • He has less self-confidence than he thought, or he is literally afraid to face certain aspects of his new job.

Your primary goal is to know that you are directing your own identity shift. You need to reconcile your intent with your impact. How do you intend to be perceived by others and what is the actual impact of your behavior on others? Your task is to acknowledge conflicting views and realities and take steps to address them.

The Power of Emotional Intelligence

What is emotional intelligence?

Camilla practices her self-management skills.

Understanding yourself and others can help you weather and direct the personal shifts you'll experience as a new manager.

But how can you actually deepen your knowledge of your own and others' motivations, strengths, and weaknesses? One way is through strengthening and using your emotional intelligence—a combination of self-management skills and the ability to work with others.

Components of emotional intelligence

quote beginI want to treat people the way I always wanted to be treated.quote end
—A new manager

Emotional intelligence (EI) comprises five components, as shown in the table below:

Components of Emotional Intelligence

SELF-MANAGEMENT SKILLS

Skill

Definition

Example

1. Self- awareness

Knowing and being willing to talk about your weaknesses

You work poorly under tight deadlines, so you plan your time carefully—and explain to colleagues why you're careful about your schedule.

2. Self- regulation

Having the ability to control your impulses and channel them for good purposes

Your group stumbles during an important presentation. Instead of kicking over a chair or glaring angrily at everyone, you take time to assess the situation. You acknowledge the failure, consider possible reasons for it, then call your team together, offer your feelings, and work together to learn from the mistakes.

3. Motivation

Being motivated by an internal drive to achieve, not by external rewards

You seek out creative challenges, love to learn, and take great pride in a job well done. You also constantly explore new and better approaches to your work.

ABILITY TO RELATE TO OTHERS

Skill

Definition

Example

4. Empathy

Taking others' feelings into account when making decisions

You assign one direct report to a prize project, leaving others disappointed. You take the feelings of the unhappy ones into account and find ways to treat everyone fairly in the long run.

5. Social skill

Building rapport with others, inspiring them to cooperate, and moving them in the direction you desire

You're convinced that your company's future lies with the Internet. You find like-minded people and use your social skill to stitch together a virtual community of support cutting across levels, functions, and divisions. You use this de facto team to create a prototype of an innovative corporate Web site, and you recruit people from various company units to represent your firm at an important Internet industry convention.

The Power of Emotional Intelligence

Components of emotional intelligence

Activity: Assess your emotional intelligence

How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I have expertise in building and leading teams.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I have a knack for finding common ground with others.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I am self-confident.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I have expertise in coaching and retaining talented people.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I am in control of my feelings and impulses.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I constantly try to improve.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I know when to ask for help.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I am sensitive to cross-cultural differences.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I have a strong drive to achieve.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I am trustworthy.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I know my strengths and limitations.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I suspend judgment and prefer to seek out information.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I am optimistic even in the face of failure.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I enjoy collaboration.




How accurately does the following statement describe you?

I intuitively know how people are feeling.




Developing your emotional intelligence is crucial to realizing your potential as a manager. Use this assessment to test your current EI.

Strengthen your emotional intelligence

It is possible to strengthen your emotional intelligence. However, experts advise against using traditional management-training programs to do so. Instead, they recommend that you do the following:

  • Gather feedback from colleagues to shed light on which of your EI skills most need improvement.
  • Practice new EI behaviors as often as possible; for example, remind yourself to express anger or frustration in new, more productive ways (like taking a brisk walk) than you have in the past.
  • Make a personal commitment to developing your EI.

Like other forms of professional development, enhancing your EI takes effort, time, and patience. However, the investment will pay big dividends. One global food and beverage company discovered this first-hand—when managers who worked to develop their EI outperformed their own yearly earnings goals by 20%.

Clearly, strengthening your EI can help you become a more effective manager and directly affect your company's bottom line.

Coping with New Emotions

Take note of feelings

Camilla is reluctant to examine her mixed emotions about taking on her new managerial role.

As you're contemplating or even embarking on your new role as a manager, how are you feeling? Most new managers feel excited, proud, and anxious, even fearful of their changing role.

And if you're like many businesspeople in general, you may feel reluctant to acknowledge or talk about these emotions. After all, the workplace should be ruled by logic and rationality—not feelings—right?

But if you understand that your feelings are perfectly normal, you'll be less likely to be surprised by them. You can also prepare yourself to better manage the emotional challenges and strains that accompany the transition into management.

Stressful emotions of transformation

The emotional challenges of becoming a manager are just as formidable as the practical challenges. What kinds of stress do you need to prepare for?

Key Idea

You can expect to experience one or more of the following emotions as you transition from individual contributor to manager:

  • Frustration—especially if you suspect that your responses to new demands just aren't working
  • Performance anxiety—or the fear of failure
  • Loss—as you bid farewell to your familiar identity, your sense of mastery, and all the other satisfying things you had as an individual contributor
  • Humility—as you discover that you may not be as prepared for your new role as you thought
  • Marginality—a sense of being caught between two identities

Typically, new managers have the least tolerance for performance anxiety, or fear of failure. Why? Many managers have a long history as high achievers in their individual-contributor role. So they find it especially difficult to imagine coping with the feelings of shame and guilt that they know often accompany failure. In addition, they typically lack the experience and skills to deal with those unfamiliar emotions.

The first step to dealing with these emotions is to realize that they are normal. Many managers experience these feelings when transitioning to their new roles. The second is to realize that they will naturally diminish over time as you gain the skills and confidence that you need to excel in your new position. And the third is to take action to relieve the stress associated with these emotions.

Role strain

quote beginDo you know how hard it is to be the boss, when you're so out of control?quote end
—A new manager

Role strain is a common feeling that many new managers experience. It's a form of stress that derives from the overload, ambiguity, and conflict woven into the managerial role. Managers discover that:

  • They have too much work to do—in the face of insufficient time and information, and limited resources.
  • They have conflicting responsibilities, such as increasing revenues while also holding down costs.
  • They have to answer to too many people—superiors, customers, direct reports, peers—all of whom make managers feel pulled in multiple directions.

Most managers learn to cope with:

  • The fast pace and constant interruptions that define their job by finding quiet moments, for example, or by structuring their day with a slot for undisturbed work.
  • Imperfection—the fact that they can't neatly plan and control every moment of their day and that their decisions require compromises among competing interests.
  • Their own lack of knowledge—since they can't be experts on the many issues they confront each day. They'll learn to depend on others who are experts and trust their judgments.

Endless problem solving

Endless problem solving is another common feeling that new managers experience. This source of strain arises from the unexpected reality of being a manager—having to constantly deal with and solve difficult problems.

Direct reports tend to bring their most knotty problems and frustrations to their manager—and expect him or her to solve them. New managers may feel overwhelmed by direct reports' relentless focus on problems and the department's or group's shortcomings, and become discouraged because most of these problems don't have simple solutions.

In addition, managers may discover that some of their direct reports may not be as motivated or competent as they themselves had been as individual contributors. Indeed, dealing with "problem employees" can constitute a unique source of negativity. That's because:

  • Managing low performers spawns negative emotions—fear, anxiety, frustration, anger—for both parties.
  • First-time managers tend to have histories of high achievement—thus they find it difficult to tolerate incompetence in others.

New managers eventually find it easier to endure these frustrating aspects of management. They learn to:

  • Draw boundaries around what kinds of problems they'll take on (that is, coach direct reports on how to solve more problems on their own).
  • Resist the urge to classify all direct reports who come to them with concerns as problem employees.

Note: If you're spending too much time dealing with your direct report's problems, learn how to help your employees solve their own problems.

Isolation

Oftentimes when people go through a career transition, they experience a sense of isolation. Most managers are social beings. They enjoy interacting with others and had plenty of human contact as individual contributors. By contrast, the managerial role can be lonely at times. That's because:

  • In any career transition, people find themselves without a clear group by which to identify appropriate values and norms.
  • New supervisors don't yet "know the ropes"—the wisdom about their jobs that will come only with experience.
  • At times, managers must make decisions that are unpopular with direct reports. As a result, they sense mistrust, resentment, and rejection from their direct reports.
  • Direct reports who used to be a manager's peers now seem to avoid casual social contact with him or her.

To overcome the sense of isolation, seek support and companionship from other individuals—friends and past coworkers—in the larger organization. Many new managers feel reluctant to call on these relationships early in their tenure, because they fear that these people will see them as weak or incompetent. However, these individuals can provide invaluable support—just when a new leader needs it most.

Burdens of leadership

Having so much authority and responsibility can be disconcerting for a new manager. And leadership does contain three dimensions that can prove particularly stressful for inexperienced managers:

  • Managing risk. The stakes are higher for a manager than for an individual contributor. Managers must make important decisions under imperfect conditions. This requires them to build confidence, a strong will, and the ability to feel comfortable exercising power and influence—while accepting and learning from an occasional bad decision.

    In honestly admitting their mistakes, imperfect decisions, and limitations, many leaders are surprised to discover that their power is not at all diminished. Indeed, their honesty helps direct reports see them as real human beings—and thus more approachable and credible.

  • Being a role model. Numerous first-time managers soon realize that their actions have lasting consequences for the people around them.

    In particular, they learn that they need to manage their emotions—appearing enthusiastic and optimistic, and conveying a sense of maturity and professionalism.

    They also find that their direct reports look to them for cues on how to behave, particularly during times of stress. Thus, managers need to learn how to appear calm during difficult times.

  • Having power over other people's lives. In influencing others' work and lives, managers face two particularly difficult challenges: (1) taking disciplinary action, such as firing an employee, and (2) balancing individual and group interests.

    Firing someone can be enormously unsettling and sobering—especially when a manager cares about the person and knows the impact the loss of the job will have on him or her. Many managers take a direct report's failure—or, for that matter, an employee's voluntary decision to move to another company—as a personal failure.

    As a manager, you do need to examine your own role in a direct report's failure to perform because you may have been part of the problem. If so, find ways to avoid such problematic behavior in the future.

Easing the strain

In light of the many stresses and emotions associated with both the transition to the managerial role and the pressures inherent in the job, what can you, a new manager, do to keep from burning yourself out?

One helpful step is to know ahead of time what stresses and emotions to expect. Another is to take action to relieve the stress.

Here are some additional ideas:

  • Be careful not to neglect your personal life. Cutting yourself off from your family and friends can only worsen your feelings of isolation. Indeed, many managers find that a spouse, a relationship partner, a respected relative, or a close friend can provide enormous emotional support during this challenging career transition.
  • Get enough leisure time and relaxation. If necessary, force yourself to periodically take a day—or even a half-day—off. During your time off, try not to think about work. Instead, engage in whatever activities you find most rejuvenating—such as reading a novel, taking a long walk, or playing your favorite sport.
  • Talk about your concerns with supportive friends. People both inside and outside your organization with whom you have close friendships can provide crucial emotional support. Talk with them about what you're going through. Even if they do nothing but listen, you'll almost certainly feel better after getting your concerns out in the open.
  • Take care of your health. If you're experiencing physical problems as a result of job stress, take advantage of every opportunity to relax. If you're used to exercising regularly, carve out time to stick to your regimen. Many people find that even just a 20-minute walk or jog can clear their heads and rejuvenate their energy. Perhaps most important, try to get enough sleep. Fatigue is notorious for making even the most minor problem look far worse than it really is.
  • Keep your job in proper perspective. When your managerial role seems about to overwhelm you, take a moment to reappraise your values and personal and professional commitments. Ask yourself: "What's most important to me? "What really counts in life?" And remember: No job or career—no matter how exciting, stimulating, or financially rewarding—is worth your sanity, your physical health, or your commitments to family or friends.

All of the above tips can help ease the strain of serving as a manager. But perhaps the most important advice to keep in mind is: Be patient with yourself. Know that, in time, your ability to cope with the pressures of management will improve. As you gain familiarity with your job and all its inherent stresses, you'll uncover internal resources you never knew you had.

Reaping the Rewards

Feel fulfilled

Camilla and her team smile with satisfaction because together they're growing and achieving shared goals.

Becoming an effective manager enables you to satisfy some important psychological needs.

  • Achievement. You already know you have a need for achievement. Otherwise, you probably would not have excelled as an individual contributor. Nor would you have been likely to take on the difficult job of manager.

    The role of manager gives you the opportunity to achieve in new ways:

    • Learn about and master new skills
    • Accomplish important work in challenging new ways
    • Support your company's vision and mission in new ways
  • Influence. Being a manager is all about exercising influence. In the workplace, influencing others to achieve shared goals can be very satisfying.

    As a manager, you develop networks of relationships with the many different people on whom you depend to get things done. Over time, you get to know what's most important to each of these individuals, how you can best help them achieve their goals, and how they can best help you. You exchange information and other resources in mutually supportive, beneficial ways.

  • Affiliation. Many managers have a need for affiliation—being part of and contributing to something larger than just themselves.

    Our connections with other people can deeply satisfy our need for affiliation, and our jobs often help us satisfy this deep need. Work provides us with numerous opportunities to collaborate with others to accomplish shared goals that transcend our own personal aims.

Develop and grow

quote beginThe critical difference between exceptional and average managers: the exceptional managers motivate, develop, and lead people even though they've got to drive the business.quote end
—A new manager

As you encounter entirely new kinds of challenges and responsibilities, you find that you have the strength and resources to meet these challenges.

For example, some first-time managers ultimately learn that they have a gift for leading and inspiring others. Others find that they're especially talented at gauging others' motivations and values.

Each time you make something happen as a manager—whether it's shaping your group's culture in positive ways, helping someone master a new task, or assembling a top-notch team—you expand your abilities. You become a more seasoned, experienced, and confident leader, and you have a sharper awareness of your own strengths and areas for improvement.

Not only do you learn more about yourself as you progress in your role; you also learn more about organizational life in general, including:

  • How influence really works
  • What makes one team more effective than another
  • How your own group's strategies and activities can support (or hinder) the larger organization's goals
  • How to help people find meaning in their work
  • What it takes to unleash a group's creativity and innovative spirit

Collaborate

quote beginWhen I started bouncing ideas around with the people in my group, something happened: the more we played our ideas off each other, the better the end results were.quote end
—A new manager

The common assumption that you can accomplish more alone than you can with others is actually questionable. The reality of organizational life strongly suggests that you achieve more by helping others succeed and by working with them toward a shared goal.

In the workplace, good ideas have the most impact when people work together to turn them into products or services that satisfy customers' needs and support the organization's mission.

As a manager, you can play a central role in that collaborative process by:

  • Developing a top-notch team
  • Using your influence to cultivate commitment and a cooperative spirit among your peers, your own supervisors, your direct reports, and key players outside your company, such as suppliers, customers, and partnering organizations
  • Winning your direct reports' loyalty
  • Helping others succeed

Learn

Frequently Asked Questions

What's really involved in becoming a good manager?

Becoming a manager means coming to terms with the differences between management myths and realities. Most managers focus on their formal authority—the rights and privileges associated with getting promoted higher up in the ranks. But soon they discover that they have new duties, obligations, and interdependencies. They find that formal authority is actually a limited source of power. Their influence in working with and through others becomes more productive than simple authority.

New managers have two main sets of responsibilities: managing their team, and managing the context in which their team functions. This means managing the relationships of one's own team with other groups, both inside and outside the organization, as well as scanning the competitive environment to ensure that the agenda you set for your team is appropriate.

What are some areas of difficulty that a new manager may experience in his or her first year?

Many new managers find delegation particularly difficult. It involves a tricky set of judgment calls that managers must learn to make based on their experience on the job. Another difficulty new managers often confront is abandoning the role of doer and embracing the role of agenda setter. Finally, learning to manage your team versus the separate individuals on that team can be difficult.

What kinds of emotions do new managers experience?

Many new managers go into the role expecting to feel free, smart, and in control. However, they're surprised to find themselves feeling constrained, not so smart, and out of control initially. The technical competence that mattered so much to them when they were individual contributors has little relevance in their new role, so they feel out of their comfort zones. In time, these feelings begin to ebb.

Can new managers learn how to find satisfaction from their work in new ways?

Yes, definitely. Some things they thought would not be satisfying or enjoyable turn out to be very satisfying. Many managers learn that they really enjoy coaching and seeing others succeed—even more so than solving problems on their own. It's not so much about learning as it is about discovering new things about the self. Of course, as new managers begin mastering their role, they often feel the kind of satisfaction that comes simply from acquiring new skills.

What can organizations learn from people who are transitioning into the managerial role for the first time?

New managers are like beginning anthropologists. They're soaking up any information that seems relevant to their new responsibilities. Thus they can bring a fresh perspective on things and can ask the questions that really get to the core of key matters. They're also very sensitive to the mixed signals that a company can give, and their reading of those signals can help their organization. If the company realizes that employees are misinterpreting its messages and values, it can make constructive changes.

Practice

Scenario

Part 1

Part 1

Suzanne was recently promoted to "head trader" of the high-tech securities trading desk at DrayCo, an investment services firm. She knew the transition from trader to manager of traders would be challenging, but she never expected it to be this difficult.

She figured she would have much more power as a manager. But when she proposed a new trade analysis procedure soon after her promotion, fellow head traders ignored her suggestion. Several months into the new job, Suzanne feels she has little influence on her peers—or on her direct reports.

Suzanne wonders how the other head traders—Mitch, Karen, and Joel—gain each other's support and win their direct reports' allegiance. To learn their secret, she begins observing their behavior, including how they interact with each other, their direct reports, and her.

What are some successful strategies Suzanne might observe the other managers using?

Explore all the choices.

  • Mitch carefully collects recent data and other valuable resources in order to have the latest information on file should the need ever occur.

  • Not the best choice. Managers don't exert influence by hoarding power in the form of needed resources and information. Instead, influential managers share power. They freely exchange needed resources and information with everyone in their influence network —peers, direct reports, supervisors, and even customers whose cooperation they need to accomplish their goals.



    By sharing power, managers acquire power. That's because by providing help to others, they're more likely to receive resources and support from others later. And when they receive help, they're much more likely to accomplish their goals.

  • When the pace gets overwhelming for her direct reports, Karen steps in and implements the more demanding tasks that could benefit from her expertise.

  • Not the best choice. Truly influential managers rarely handle their direct reports' tasks themselves. Rather, they build their influence by developing their direct reports' skills. The more successful their direct reports are, the more successful the manager becomes.



    Managers also need to strengthen relationships with peers, supervisors, and even people outside their company (such as key customers or suppliers). In fact, influential managers view themselves as "people developers," not "task doers."

  • Joel attends an introductory training program specifically geared toward Mitch's specialty in order to learn more about a new area.

  • Correct choice. By attending this program, Joel learns more about Mitch's priorities and everyday concerns, thus enhancing his relationship with Mitch. Strong relationships and mutual awareness of needs and priorities enable managers to help one another.



    For example, suppose Joel helps Mitch through a busy time by providing information that has value for Mitch. Mitch may return the favor someday by backing a new program that Joel has proposed. This informal exchange of assistance is the real source of power for managers who have little or no formal authority over one another.

Part 2

Part 2

After watching the other head traders, Suzanne starts using some of their techniques. She also enhances her relationships with them. For example, she chats frequently in the hallway with them, suggests they grab a bite to eat for lunch, and asks them for advice. Soon she gains their support for several of her key initiatives.

However, Suzanne is having trouble managing one of her direct reports. Chen, the most senior trader in Suzanne's group, complains frequently about problems within the team and sometimes ignores Suzanne's requests. At times, he doesn't engage fully in the work at hand.

Despite his negative demeanor, Chen is a highly talented trader. Suzanne wants to keep him in the group, but she doesn't want Chen's attitude to corrode the team's morale.

What should Suzanne do about Chen?

Explore all the choices.

  • Since Chen appears dissatisfied and disengaged, Suzanne should get to the root of his attitude problem and push him to move past his concerns.

  • Correct choice. With Chen, Suzanne should use a coaching leadership style. Coaching—a process by which a manager helps a direct report identify and move past problem behaviors—is the best leadership approach in this case.



    Part of being a good manager is adapting the way you lead your team and the individuals within it. Fine-tune your approach to each person—depending on each individual's level of professional development and commitment to the job.

  • Since Chen has various strengths that are crucial to the team's overall performance, Suzanne should encourage him to identify and build on those strengths.

  • Not the best choice. Chen's attitude presents a problem for the team, so Suzanne should use coaching to help him identify and move past the behaviors that are causing concern. Once the reasons for Chen's negative attitude have been addressed,



    Suzanne might then use other leadership styles with him to build on his strengths.

    Skilled managers often use different leadership styles with the same individual—depending on the particular situation.

  • Since Chen is a talented, seasoned trader and needs to be challenged to perform at his best, Suzanne should entrust him with more key responsibilities and decision making.

  • Not the best choice. This delegating leadership style is more appropriate for team members who are at their peak performance. Chen's negative attitude is a problem for the team, so Suzanne should first use coaching to help him identify and move past the behaviors that have caused concern.



    With the novice members on her staff, Suzanne should use a more directive style (providing more explicit instructions and requests). With team members who lack confidence, she should use a supportive style (encouraging direct reports to identify and build on their strengths and gradually take more risks).

Part 3

Part 3

Adopting the right leadership style with Chen has paid off. Chen's attitude has improved, and he's performing at his best. Suzanne knows she has handled this situation skillfully.

Yet Suzanne isn't sure how to evaluate other aspects of her own performance. She recalls how easy it was to assess her performance as a trader: When her trades made a lot of money for DrayCo and its customers, she knew she was performing well. It was that simple.

As a manager, Suzanne sees few opportunities to objectively gauge her overall impact at DrayCo. She knows she has valuable qualities to offer. For example, her direct reports find Suzanne's sense of humor invigorating during high-pressure times. However, with her performance review three months away, she wonders how she might assess her abilities now.

How might Suzanne evaluate her performance?

Explore all the choices.

  • Notice whether her direct reports have begun emulating her use of humor to boost morale among themselves.

  • Good choice. If Suzanne's team members have also begun using humor productively, then Suzanne knows she's having an impact and enhancing the group's culture. Shaping team culture in productive ways is a key managerial responsibility. However, it is difficult to measure objectively. Managers must rely on keen observation and familiarity with their team members to evaluate their own performance in this dimension.

  • Ask her direct reports to share their impressions of her management style and the quality of her work.

  • Good choice. Periodically gathering impressions from direct reports, as well as from peers, bosses, and customers, can help Suzanne judge her overall impact at DrayCo. After gathering such feedback, Suzanne should look for patterns. For example, she might discover that many direct reports, as well as her supervisor, see her as overly tentative. In this case, she could work to boost her self-confidence and assertiveness.



    But Suzanne should take care in interpreting the feedback she receives. The key is to identify patterns rather than feel compelled to respond to every instance of feedback. Also, she should not constantly ask for critiques from direct reports, as that may undermine her authority in their minds.

  • Observe whether all the people with whom she works most closely seem consistently pleased and satisfied by the quality of her work.

  • Not a good choice. One of the toughest challenges of management is that you can't please everyone with whom you work or interact. There will always be someone who is dissatisfied or upset with your decisions or actions. And there will always be work left undone. If Suzanne gauges her performance by whether she's pleasing everyone all the time, she may conclude that she's not doing a good job—which might not be an accurate assessment of her abilities.

Conclusion

Conclusion

Through her observations, Suzanne has begun learning that real power comes from building and nurturing her influence network. She has also realized she needs to adapt her leadership style to the individual members of her team. Finally, she has discovered creative ways to evaluate her overall performance as a manager.

Initially, the transition into management may feel daunting. New managers need to learn entirely new skills that are very different from those that made them successful individual contributors. You may find it helpful to know that other new managers go through a period of uncertainty. But with time and practice, they gain the skills and confidence they need to excel in their new roles.

Check Your Knowledge

Question 1

Which of the following is not a common myth about management?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • Managers have a lot of power.

  • Not the best choice. The assumption that managers have a lot of power is actually a common myth about management. Many new managers also fall prey to myths about what kinds of skills managers need, how they feel about their jobs, and how valuable training might be in helping them master their new role. Having inner strength, however, is not a myth about management. Most first-time leaders don't go into their new role saddled with incorrect assumptions about inner strength.

  • Managers have a lot of inner strength.

  • Correct choice. Some managers may indeed have a lot of inner strength—but most first-time leaders don't go into their new role saddled with incorrect assumptions about inner strength. Instead, they fall prey to myths about what kinds of skills managers need, how much power and freedom they have, how they feel about their jobs, and how valuable training might be in helping them master their new role.

  • Managers have a lot of freedom.

  • Not the best choice. The assumption that managers have a lot of freedom is actually a common myth about management. Many new managers also fall prey to myths about what kinds of skills managers need, how they feel about their jobs, and how valuable training might be in helping them master their new role. Having inner strength, however, is not a myth about management. Most first-time leaders don't go into their new role saddled with incorrect assumptions about inner strength.

Question 2

Which of the following would be evidence that you have succeeded as a manager?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • Your group has achieved its objective of boosting sales by a specific percentage this quarter.

  • Correct choice. At its core, management means getting things done through other people. Thus managers must measure their success by gauging how well their group achieves its objectives. But they must also attend to other factors—such as how much they've helped their direct reports hone their skills and how strongly their group's achievements have supported the company's objectives and strategies. These measures differ markedly from those used to gauge individual contributors' success.

  • You've personally resolved most of the customer complaints coming through your department.

  • Not the best choice. Ability to personally resolve problems that your direct reports can better handle is not an accurate measure of managerial success. Rather, management means getting things done through other people. Thus managers must measure their success by gauging how well their group achieves its objectives. They must also attend to other factors, such as how much they've helped their direct reports hone their skills and how strongly their group's achievements have supported the company's objectives and strategies. These measures differ markedly from those used to gauge individual contributors' success.

  • You've completed a challenging management seminar and have stayed with the job for one year.

  • Not the best choice. Participation in training seminars and length of stay on the job aren't the most accurate measures of managerial success. Rather, management means getting things done through other people. Thus managers must measure their success by gauging how well their group achieves its objectives. They must also attend to other factors, such as how much they've helped their direct reports hone their skills and how strongly their group's achievements have supported the company's objectives and strategies. These measures differ markedly from those used to gauge individual contributors' success.

Question 3

What is a manager's most important source of power?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • His or her formal authority

  • Not the best choice. A person's formal authority is actually far less a source of power than his or her personal influence. Direct reports don't always follow their manager's direction, and managers don't have any formal authority over their peers and supervisors—two groups whose support they still need to get things done. Rather than relying on formal authority, managers exercise their personal influence by cultivating networks of mutually beneficial relationships with supervisors, peers, direct reports, and even people outside the company, such as key suppliers or customers. They learn what they can do to support their network members' goals and how their network members can support their—the managers'—goals. Formal authority plays little role in these exchanges of influence.

  • His or her professional and educational qualifications

  • Not the best choice. A person's professional and educational qualifications are actually far less a source of power than his or her personal influence. Rather than relying on their qualifications to wield power, managers exercise their personal influence by cultivating networks of mutually beneficial relationships with supervisors, peers, direct reports, and even people outside the company, such as key suppliers or customers. They learn what they can do to support their network members' goals and how their network members can support their—the managers'—goals. Professional and educational qualifications play little role in these exchanges of influence.

  • His or her personal influence

  • Correct choice. Personal influence is a far greater source of power than a person's formal authority or professional and education qualifications. That's because direct reports don't always follow their manager's direction, and managers don't have any formal authority over their peers and supervisors—two groups whose support they still need to get things done. Rather than relying on formal authority or professional and educational qualifications, managers exercise personal influence by cultivating networks of mutually beneficial relationships with supervisors, peers, direct reports, and even people outside the company, such as key suppliers or customers. They learn what they can do to support their network members' goals and how their network members can support their—the managers'—goals. Formal authority and professional or educational background play little role in these exchanges of influence.

Question 4

Which of the following is the most realistic motivation for becoming a manager?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • You'll achieve new status, prestige, and recognition for contributing to your organization's success.

  • Not the best choice. Many new managers wrongly assume that the managerial role is all about status, prestige, and recognition for themselves. But it's really about their group and its effectiveness and success. First-time leaders can achieve a more realistic perspective on their new position by making sure they're pursuing a managerial career for the right reason: to help their organization achieve its goals rather than to enhance their own image.

  • You'll help your people to excel, fulfill their own dreams, and gain new skills and self-confidence.

  • Correct choice. Many new managers assume that their job is about them, their power, and their success—but it's really about their group and its effectiveness and success. First-time managers can achieve a more realistic perspective about their new position by making sure they're pursuing a managerial career for the right reason: to help their organization achieve its goals rather than to enhance their own image.

  • You'll be able to make decisions more quickly and therefore see the results of your actions right away.

  • Not the best choice. Many new managers wrongly assume that the managerial role will enable them to make decisions more quickly and see the results of their actions right away. Instead, being a manager is really about increasing their group's effectiveness and success. First-time leaders can achieve a more realistic perspective on their new position by making sure they're pursuing a managerial career for the right reason: to help their organization achieve its goals rather than to accelerate decision making.

Question 5

What is the most productive method to manage a new team member?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • Work with the person closely and provide ongoing feedback and guidance

  • Correct choice. A new team member needs more attention and guidance than more experienced members of your team. You have to pay special attention to the person until he or she learns the routine and gains familiarity with the job itself.

  • Let the person learn through his or her mistakes

  • Not the best choice. Letting a new team member gain knowledge through learning from mistakes alone is not enough to bring that person up to productive speed. A new team member needs ongoing feedback and guidance. You have to pay special attention to the person until he or she learns the routine and gains familiarity with the job itself.

  • Have the person read business guides, attend training sessions, and seek help in solving problems

  • Not the best choice. Letting a new team member gain knowledge only through reading books, attending training, and asking for help is not enough to bring that person up to productive speed. A new team member needs ongoing feedback and guidance. You have to pay special attention to the person until he or she learns the routine and gains familiarity with the job itself.

Question 6

True or false: In order to treat your direct reports fairly, you must treat them all equally.

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • True

  • Not the best choice. Treating people fairly may not mean treating them the same. Fairness really means finding the best ways to help each direct report succeed. And those ways may differ, depending on your direct reports' different situations. When you treat people differently, you're actually giving them an equal opportunity to do well. For example, suppose one person in your group responds to praise with immensely renewed energy, commitment, and innovativeness. You could treat him fairly—but differently—by making it a point to thank him in person at least once a week for whatever recent successes he has achieved, regardless of how big or small those successes were.

  • False

  • Correct choice. Treating people fairly may not mean treating them the same. Fairness really means finding the best ways to help each direct report succeed. And those ways may differ, depending on your direct reports' different situations. When you treat people differently, you're actually giving them an equal opportunity to do well. For example, suppose one person in your group responds to praise with immensely renewed energy, commitment, and innovativeness. You could treat him fairly—but differently—by making it a point to thank him in person at least once a week for whatever recent successes he has achieved, regardless of how big or small those successes were.

Question 7

Which of the following best describes what a team is?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • A team is a group of people who work on a single, defined project together; disband or reorganize after the project is finished; and receive new assignments based on company needs.

  • Not the best choice. The characteristics that make teams so valuable are actually a shared purpose, performance goals, and approach to their mission, for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. These characteristics make teams especially valuable when your group's work requires a combination of knowledge, expertise, and perspective that can't be found in a single individual; when the work hinges on a large degree of interdependence among group members; or when your group faces a major challenge, such as reversing falling profitability.

  • A team is a group of people who have a shared purpose, performance goals, and approach to their mission, for which they hold themselves collectively accountable.

  • Correct choice. These characteristics make teams especially valuable when your group's work requires a combination of knowledge, expertise, and perspective that can't be found in a single individual; when the work hinges on a large degree of interdependence among group members; or when your group faces a major challenge, such as reversing falling profitability.

  • A team is a group of people who place a higher priority on their learning and development versus their current performance, and who emphasize mutual support over confrontation.

  • Not the best choice. The characteristics that make teams so valuable are actually a shared purpose, performance goals, and approach to their mission, for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. These characteristics make teams especially valuable when your group's work requires a combination of knowledge, expertise, and perspective that can't be found in a single individual; when the work hinges on a large degree of interdependence among group members; or when your group faces a major challenge, such as reversing falling profitability.

Question 8

What is coaching?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • A two-way partnership in which both parties share knowledge and experience in order to maximize the coachee's potential and help him or her achieve agreed-upon goals

  • Correct choice. A key defining feature of coaching is that it is a two-way partnership. That is, both parties must be willing and able to participate in it in a focused, structured way. In a business setting, coaching is more about helping someone learn and move toward his or her own, self-identified goals than it is about helping him or her address personal issues or imparting values, skills, or attitudes in order to reach your own objectives.

  • A way for you to impart desired values, skills, and attitudes to an employee so that his or her performance or behavior will more strongly support your goals and agenda

  • Not the best choice. In a business setting, coaching is more about helping someone learn and move toward his or her own, self-identified goals than it is about imparting values, skills, or attitudes in order to reach your own objectives. A key defining feature of coaching is that it is a two-way partnership. That is, both parties must be willing and able to participate in it in a focused, structured way.

  • A way for managers to help employees address personal issues that are making it difficult for them to contribute to the team's efforts or hone their own performance

  • Not the best choice. In a business setting, coaching is more about helping someone learn and move toward his or her self-identified professional goals than it is about helping him or her address personal issues. Another key defining feature of coaching is that it is a two-way partnership. That is, both parties must be willing and able to participate in it in a focused, structured way.

Question 9

What's the best way you can combat the feeling of being overwhelmed when your team seems to constantly bring problems to you?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • Let employees know that you support them—that you're committed to listening to and resolving their problems whenever they need your help

  • Not the best choice. Being willing to solve all your employees' problems keeps them from developing their own skills and autonomy. Instead, you should prompt employees to strengthen their own problem-solving skills, and ask them to come to you only with problems they can't solve on their own. You need to strike a delicate balance of encouraging employees to strengthen their problem-solving abilities and drawing boundaries around what kinds of problems you will help them resolve.

  • Prompt employees to strengthen their own problem-solving skills, and ask them to come to you only with problems they can't solve on their own

  • Correct choice. You need to maintain a delicate balance of encouraging employees to strengthen their problem-solving skills and drawing boundaries around what kinds of problems you will help them resolve. Being willing to solve all their problems keeps them from developing their own skills and autonomy. Refusing to help them solve any problems may make them feel unsupported and abandoned.

  • Have a frank group discussion about each team members' role. Explain that employees must take responsibility for resolving their own problems

  • Not the best choice. Refusing to help your employees solve any problems may make them feel unsupported and abandoned. Instead, you need to strike a delicate balance of encouraging employees to strengthen their problem-solving abilities and drawing boundaries around what kinds of problems you will help them resolve—by asking them to come to you only with problems they can't solve on their own.

Question 10

Being an effective manager provides opportunities to satisfy which of the following needs?

Click the button next to the correct answer choice. After you have read the feedback, explore the other choices. Note: Your first selection will be used in tallying your score.

  • Your direct reports' approval and peers' respect

  • Not the best choice. Effective managers don't expect the managerial role to gain them all their direct reports' approval. Instead, many of them find that their work satisfies their need to master new abilities (achievement), shape others' performance and behavior (influence), and collaborate with respected and admired colleagues (affiliation).

  • Job security and well-defined career path

  • Not the best choice. Effective managers don't always look to their managerial role to provide job security and a well-defined career path. Instead, many of them find that their work satisfies their need to master new abilities (achievement), shape others' performance and behavior (influence), and collaborate with respected and admired colleagues (affiliation).

  • Achievement, influence, and affiliation

  • Correct choice. Many effective managers find that their work satisfies their need to master new abilities (achievement), shape others' performance and behavior (influence), and collaborate with respected and admired colleagues (affiliation). By contrast, effective managers don't always necessarily obtain all their direct reports' approval, nor do they necessarily have greater job security or a more clearly defined career path than other professionals do.

Apply

Steps

Steps for building and cultivating your network

  1. Identify those on whom you depend to get your job done.
  2. Ask yourself:

    • Whose cooperation do I need?
    • Whose compliance do I need?
    • Whose opposition would keep me from accomplishing my work?
  3. Draw a map of these dependencies.
  4. Create a diagram showing how you relate to or depend upon others in the organization.

    Be sure your "dependencies map" shows first-order as well as second-order dependencies.

    For example, you may be dependent not only on your immediate supervisor but also on his or her boss.

    Remember: It's better to overestimate rather than underestimate the number of dependencies important to your network. Some otherwise successful managers have been derailed because they were blindsided by someone whose position and power they hadn't anticipated.

  5. Figure out how each person in your "dependencies map" sees the world.
  6. For each person in your map, answer these kinds of questions, if possible:

    • What differences exist between myself and this person (in terms of goals, values, stakes, pressures, and working styles)?
    • What are the underlying forces that have created those differences?
    • What sources of power do I have relative to this person?
    • What might this person's assumptions, perceptions, and feelings be about my decisions and actions?
  7. Assess the quality of your relationship with each person in your dependencies map.
  8. For each person on your map, answer these kinds of questions, if possible:

    • Do we share mutual trust and credibility?
    • Do we perceive one another as competent?
    • Do we perceive one another as wanting to do the right thing?
    • Do we perceive one another as being able to get the job done?

    Your answers will shed light on which of your relationships are strongest and which need work.

  9. Identify critical gaps in your relationships.
  10. Depending on your responses to the questions in Step 4, decide which relationships most need strengthening. These are connections with people who are critical to your success but with whom you do not yet have a high-quality relationship.

  11. Work to enhance essential but weak relationships.
  12. Get to know people with whom you need a stronger relationship, perhaps by:

    • Having casual conversations in the hallway with them
    • Grabbing a bite to eat at lunch
    • Asking them for their advice on something
    • Learning more about their work by attending training programs geared specifically toward them

    Remember: The best time to begin building these relationships is before you really need them. That way, these connections will be established when you need to make a request.

Steps for strengthening your emotional intelligence

  1. Get coaching if possible.
  2. A consultant or peer who is well-versed in the components of emotional intelligence (EI) can help you identify your EI strengths and weaknesses. Select someone to assist you in designing new behaviors, and plan to meet with him or her regularly to review your progress and make any necessary adjustments.

  3. Gather feedback on your EI abilities.
  4. With the help of your coach, collect feedback on your EI strengths and weaknesses from your peers, boss, and direct reports. Ask respondents to comment specifically on how well you're doing on each EI component (for instance, emotional self-control and empathy).

  5. Turn your day-to-day job into a learning laboratory.
  6. Once you've identified the EI areas you need to work on, look for opportunities to practice new skills in your day-to-day job. Keep an eye out for patterns; for instance, are you more empathetic when things are calm, but still likely to tune others out during crises?

    Prepare to be patient and diligent as well. Improving your EI takes repetition and practice on the job, over several months. It also takes courage: You have to be willing to face some difficult feedback about your weaknesses and to experiment with behaving in new ways. You may fail at times, too—so brace yourself to try again if a new behavior doesn't work out the way you initially intended.

  7. Closely examine the reasons behind any negative behavior relapses and decide how to prevent them in the future.
  8. Figure out what triggered a return to old, unproductive ways of behaving (for example, perhaps feeling time pressure caused you to cut someone off during a meeting). Plan ahead what you'll do differently next time around (for instance, you'll pause for a few moments the next time you feel the urge to interrupt someone).

  9. Keep track of your performance.
  10. Suppose your goal is to learn to enter into a dialogue with an employee who does something that upsets you—versus launching into a harangue. Over several months, track the number of times you indulged in haranguing versus successfully exploring problems through dialogue. Be honest! Notice whether incidents of undesirable behavior are decreasing or increasing over time. If problem behavior is increasing, work with your coach to get back on track.

Tips

Tips for assessing your progress

  • Invite feedback. Let peers, bosses, and direct reports know that you want to hear their impressions of your performance as a manager.
  • Take on stretch experiences. Identify and embrace challenges that you think will bring about the growth and development you would like to achieve. For example, explore ways of networking beyond your own, familiar group.
  • Identify the impact of your managerial style. Gather feedback from others not just on what you've done but also how you've done it. This information helps you clarify cause-and-effect relationships and makes the link between your intentions and your actual impact on others.
  • Observe your peers. You learn more from peers than you do from anyone else. Watch other managers and identify the most effective among them. Ask yourself what personal attributes and skills make them effective.
  • Imitate your peers' best attributes and skills. Use information you've acquired through observation to modify your own professional behavior.
  • Be open to asking for help. Find someone who can help you figure out whether you're getting the right kind of feedback.

Tips for influencing others

  • Identify potential allies. View everyone on whom you are dependent as a potential ally—even if he or she at first appears to be very different in style or attitude.
  • Build mutually beneficial alliances. Figure out what you have to offer your existing and potential allies. Determine what your allies can offer you. Help people out as much as possible.
  • Think in terms of building long-term relationships. Like any relationship, workplace alliances take continual effort and attention. They're much more than a one-shot deal! By engaging in a series of give-and-take exchanges over time, you build a foundation of trust and cooperation.
  • Avoid reliance on formal authority. Instead, whenever possible, rely on your own expertise as your main source of power.
  • Share power; don't hoard it. Observe yourself regularly to see whether you're hoarding power versus exchanging needed resources and information in a balanced way with your allies.
  • Recognize interdependencies. Be aware of mutual dependencies—not just what you need from others or what others need from you. Use your power and influence to accomplish ends that are not entirely self-serving.
  • View your allies as partners. When you view people as partners, you: (1) value the different perspectives and talents they bring, (2) bring problems with the relationship to their attention and fight hard to prevent them from making mistakes, (3) are honest in letting them know how both of you are doing, and (4) consider the welfare of your company your top priority.

Tips for introducing new policies and practices

  • Avoid the temptation to push changes through too quickly. Rather than act impulsively, introduce new policies and practices as slowly as possible—and only after you've assessed your group's situation.
  • Take time to assess your situation. Sit back and listen to people's concerns, opinions, and ideas.
  • Show that you're reflecting before you speak. When people ask for your opinion, resist the urge to answer immediately. Instead, take a moment to review your alternatives—and to show that you're doing so.
  • Figure out the politics of your situation. Find out who talks to whom, the best way to gain access to the grapevine, and who knows how things work and how to get things done.
  • Ask more questions.
  • Walk in other people's shoes. Instead of using yourself as a model for predicting how others might interpret or respond to new ways of doing things, learn to understand others' points of view.
  • Think with your head and your heart. Thinking with your head helps you deal with business challenges while thinking with your heart helps you deal with people challenges. Remember: people challenges are business challenges.

Tips for leveraging resources in your first year

  • Know your major resources. Remember, you've got three major resources at your disposal: (1) your previous career experiences, (2) the people you already know, and (3) your formal training.
  • Use previous supervisors as models. Think about the people who supervised you. What were their strengths and weaknesses? Which of their attributes could you emulate to develop your own management and decision-making skills?
  • Use previous supervisors as advisors. If possible, stay in touch with these individuals, and ask them for advice.
  • Ask your current supervisor to be your coach. If your current boss has a reputation as a skilled people developer, call on him or her for advice on your transition process.
  • Stay in touch with previous and current peers. Meet with these individuals as often as possible to discuss your ideas, interpret your experiences, and spot connections between your actions and their outcomes.
  • Use formal training opportunities to augment on-the-job learning. Take advantage of all formal training offered to you.

Tools

Best manager-worst manager worksheet

Best manager-worst manager worksheet

Tools

Checklist for new managers

Checklist for new managers

Tools

Emotional intelligence self-assessment

Emotional intelligence self-assessment

Tools

Contact sheet for new managers

Contact sheet for new managers

Tools

Worksheet for adapting your managerial style

Worksheet for adapting your managerial style

Explore Further

Explore Further

Online Articles

Linda Hill. "Becoming the Boss." Harvard Business Review. OnPoint Enhanced Edition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, January 2007.

For a decade and a half, the author has studied people—particularly star performers—making major career transitions to management. The transition is often harder than it need be because of managers' misconceptions about their role. Those who can acknowledge their misconceptions have a far greater chance of success. For example, new managers typically assume that their position will give them the authority and freedom to do what they think is best. Instead, they find themselves enmeshed in a web of relationships with subordinates, bosses, peers, and others, all of whom make relentless and often conflicting demands. But new managers also need to realize they are responsible for recommending and initiating changes—some of them in areas outside their purview—that will enhance their groups' performance.

Anne Field. Moving Managers from "Me" to "We." Harvard Management Update, April 2006.

One of the most challenging aspects of becoming a manager for the first time is making a shift in mind-set. Ironically, the very reason for promotion—stellar individual performance—can become a roadblock: the new imperative is getting the best performance from a team rather than from just oneself and developing the skills and potential of direct reports rather than hogging the spotlight. It's up to more senior executives to provide the guidance new managers need to shift their focus from "me" to "we." This article offers some basic steps for helping your fledgling managers make the difficult transition.

Harvard ManageMentor Web Site

Visit the Harvard ManageMentor Web site to explore additional online resources available to you from Harvard Business School Publishing.

Explore Further

Articles

Click on a link below to go to Harvard Business Online, the Web site of Harvard Business School Publishing, where you can browse or purchase products. Your Harvard ManageMentor program will remain open while you are at the site.

Daniel Goleman. "Leadership That Gets Results." Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, August 2000.

A manager's leadership style strongly influences his or her organization's climate—and that climate can account for nearly a third of financial performance. The most effective managers, Goleman says, use a combination of six different leadership styles, changing the blend as circumstances dictate. Goleman describes the six styles—which include "coaching," "coercive," and "democratic"—and explains the situations for which each is most appropriate.

Daniel Goleman. "What Makes a Leader?" Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, November 2000.

Goleman contends that emotional intelligence (EI)—a powerful combination of self-management and relationship skills—may have more impact on a manager's performance than his or her objective knowledge, toughness, and vision. In this article, Goleman defines the five skills that make up EI: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill. Maintaining that EI, unlike IQ, can be strengthened, he then offers practical suggestions for doing so.

Explore Further

Books

Click on a link below to go to Harvard Business Online, the Web site of Harvard Business School Publishing, where you can browse or purchase products. Your Harvard ManageMentor program will remain open while you are at the site.

Dan Ciampa and Michael Watkins. Right from the Start: Taking Charge in a New Leadership Role. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.

Taking on any new leadership role in the workplace—whether it's becoming a manager for the first time, joining an entirely new team, or getting a big promotion—is fraught with obstacles that can undermine your best efforts to establish authority and achieve results. As these authors point out, your actions and decisions during the first few months on the job can spell the difference between your success and failure. This book provides a practical framework to follow during your first six months in your new role—including planning that you'll want to do even before you take the leadership reins.

Linda A. Hill. Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2003.

New managers must learn how to lead others rather than do the work themselves, to win trust and respect, to motivate, and to strike the right balance between delegation and control. It is a transition many fail to make. Becoming a Manager traces the experiences of nineteen new managers over the course of their first year in a managerial capacity. The book reveals the complexity of the transition and analyzes the expectations of the managers, their subordinates, and their superiors. New managers describe how they reframed their understanding of their roles and responsibilities, how they learned to build effective work relationships, how and when they used individual and organizational resources, and how they learned to cope with the inevitable stresses of the transformation.

Michael D. Watkins. The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at All Levels. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2003.

Fully a quarter of all managers in major corporations enter new leadership roles each year. Whether their assignments involve leading a work group or taking over a company as CEO, they face very similar challenges—and risks—in those critical first months on the job. How new leaders manage their transitions can make all the difference between success and failure. In this hands-on guide, Michael Watkins, a noted expert on leadership transitions, offers proven strategies for moving successfully into a new role at any point in one's career.

Michael D. Watkins. Taking Charge in Your New Leadership Role. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.

Taking Charge in Your New Leadership Role provides step-by-step guidelines for preparing for and making a successful transition to a new leadership position. By systematically focusing on four core transition management challenges—learning, influence, design, and self-management—it provides a roadmap for diagnosing the situation, developing priorities, and planning to get early wins. The workbook also provides comprehensive diagnostics for assessing leadership style, as well as helpful advice on building credibility, creating coalitions, and developing supportive advice and counsel networks.

Explore Further

eLearning Programs

Click on a link below to go to Harvard Business Online, the Web site of Harvard Business School Publishing, where you can browse or purchase products. Your Harvard ManageMentor program will remain open while you are at the site.

Harvard Business School Publishing. Case in Point. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2004.

Case in Point is a flexible set of online cases, designed to help prepare middle- and senior-level managers for a variety of leadership challenges. These short, reality-based scenarios provide sophisticated content to create a focused view into the realities of the life of a leader. Your managers will experience: Aligning Strategy, Removing Implementation Barriers, Overseeing Change, Anticipating Risk, Ethical Decisions, Building a Business Case, Cultivating Customer Loyalty, Emotional Intelligence, Developing a Global Perspective, Fostering Innovation, Defining Problems, Selecting Solutions, Managing Difficult Interactions, The Coach's Role, Delegating for Growth, Managing Creativity, Influencing Others, Managing Performance, Providing Feedback, and Retaining Talent.

Harvard Business School Publishing. Coaching for Results. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2000.

Understand and practice how to effectively coach others by mastering the five core skills necessary for successful coaching:

  • Observing
  • Questioning
  • Listening
  • Feedback
  • Agreement

Through interactive role play, expert guidance, and activities for immediate application at work, this program helps you coach successfully by preparing, discussing, and following up in any situation.

Harvard Business School Publishing. Influencing and Motivating Others. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2001.

Have you ever noticed how some people seem to have a natural ability to stir people to action? Influencing and Motivating Others provides actionable lessons on getting better results from direct reports (influencing performance), greater cooperation from your peers (lateral leadership), and stronger support from your own boss and senior management (persuasion). Managers will learn the secrets of "lateral leadership" (leading peers), negotiation and persuasion skills, and how to distinguish between effective and ineffective motivation methods. Through interactive cases, expert guidance, and activities for immediate application at work, this program helps managers to assess their ability to effectively persuade others, measure motivation skills, and enhance employee performance.

Harvard Business School Publishing. Leadership Transitions. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2001.

This just-in-time performance-support resource provides you with practical insights into the challenges new leaders face during a transition. Harvard Business School Professor Michael Watkins leads you through the first months in your new role. This resource provides expert advice, guidelines, and 41 tools that will help you overcome common obstacles while you thoughtfully plan for your transition and success. Modules include guidelines for the following: diagnosing the situation you'll face in your new role; assessing your vulnerabilities and avoiding common traps; accelerating your learning and the transition process; prioritizing and planning for early wins and long-term successes; building a productive relationship with your boss; developing a strong team; creating supportive internal and external partnerships; and aligning strategy, structure, processes, skills, and group culture.

Harvard Business School Publishing. Managing Direct Reports. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2000.

Learn the skills and concepts you need to effectively manage direct reports and be able to apply these techniques immediately to your own situation. Through interactive practice scenarios, expert guidance, on-the-job activities, and a mentoring feature, you will learn and practice how to:

  • Understand direct reports' expectations
  • Manage a network of relationships
  • Delegate along a continuum

Pre- and post-assessments and additional resources complete the workshop, preparing you for more productive direct report relationships.

Harvard Business School Publishing. Managing Virtual Teams. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2000.

This program will prepare you to successfully work with and lead a virtual team. You will understand the four factors that make up an efficient and effective virtual team:

  • Great people
  • Effective communication
  • Appropriate technology
  • A shared vision and process

Through interactive role play, expert guidance, and activities for immediate application at work, this workshop will help you understand and improve your ability to work and communicate through virtual channels. Pre- and post-assessments and additional resources complete the workshop, preparing you to lead a virtual team.

Explore Further

Source Notes

Learn

Dan Ciampa and Michael Watkins. Right from the Start: Taking Charge in a New Leadership Role. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.

A. R. Cohen and D. L. Bradford. Influence without Authority. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.

Daniel Goleman. "Leadership That Gets Results." Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition, August 2000.

Daniel Goleman. "What Makes a Leader?" Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition, February 2000.

Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard. "Life Cycle Theory of Leadership." Training & Development Journal, May 1969.

Linda A. Hill. Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992.

Linda A. Hill. "Exercising Influence." Harvard Business School Case Note, May 31, 1994.

Linda A. Hill. "Managing Your Team." Harvard Business School Case Note, March 28, 1995.

Linda A. Hill. "What It Really Means to Manage: Exercising Power and Influence." Harvard Business School Case Note, February 15, 2000.

John P. Kotter. "What Leaders Really Do." Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition, February 2000.

Michael Watkins. Taking Charge in Your New Leadership Role. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2001.

Steps

Daniel Goleman. "Leadership That Gets Results." Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition, August 2000.

Linda A. Hill. "Exercising Influence." Harvard Business School Case Note, May 31, 1994.

Tips

Linda A. Hill. "Exercising Influence." Harvard Business School Case Note, May 31, 1994.

Linda A. Hill. "What It Really Means to Manage: Exercising Power and Influence." Harvard Business School Case Note, February 15, 2000.

Tools

A.R. Cohen and D.L. Bradford. Influence Without Authority. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.

Daniel Goleman. "Leadership That Gets Results." Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition, August 2000.

Linda A. Hill. Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992.

Linda A. Hill. "Managing Your Team." Harvard Business School Case Note, March 28, 1995.

L. Hirschorn. Managing in the New Team Environment: Skills, Tools, and Methods. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1991.

Daniel Goleman. "Leadership That Gets Results." Harvard Business Review OnPoint Enhanced Edition, August 2000.

Ken Blanchard. Situational Leadership. Escondido, CA: Blanchard Training and Development, Inc., 1994.